PLATO’S CONCEPT OF EDUCATION

By Justine Tesha 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION...................................................................... 2

1.  PLATO’S CONCEPT OF EDUCATION................................ 4

1.1  The Meaning Of Education............................................. 4

1.2  Plato’s Understanding Of Education............................ 4

1.3  The Role Of Education................................................... 7

1.4  Education In Greek Society............................................ 8

1.4.1  Main Features Of Greek Education......................... 8

1.4.2  Stages Of Education............................................... 10

2.  NYERERE’S CONCEPT OF EDUCATION......................... 12

2.1  Nyerere’s Understanding Of Education..................... 12

2.1.1  Informal Education In Tanzania............................. 13

2.1.2  Colonial Education In Tanzania.............................. 13

2.2  Education In  Tanzania.................................................. 14

2.2.1  Education After Independence.............................. 16

2.2.2  Systems Of Education............................................. 17

2.2.3  Adult Education..................................................... 20

2.3  The Role Of Education................................................. 21

2. 4  Importance Of Education............................................. 22

3.  EXISTING SIMILARITIES AND DISMILARITIES............ 24

3.1  On Understanding Education....................................... 24

3.2  The Role Of The Teacher.............................................. 24

3.3  Selection Of Students.................................................. 25

3.4  On The Question Of Special Schools............................ 25

3.5  Practical Work............................................................. 25

3.6  Against Gender Discrimination..................................... 26

3.7  The Minister Of Education........................................... 27

3.8  On The Question Of Morality...................................... 27

3.9  The Role Of Education................................................. 27

3.10  Physical Education..................................................... 28

3.11  Absolute Knowledge.................................................. 28

CONCLUSION......................................................................... 30

BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................... 32

iNTRODUCTION

The question of education has been given particular consideration by many Societies, Western or African. By definition, education is a transfer of knowledge from one generation to another; it is a system or practice of teaching and learning. Also in its broadest meaning, “education is any process by which an individual gains knowledge or insight, or develops attitudes or skill”[1].

This thesis writes about the contributions of two philosophers namely Plato and Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere and their understanding and importance of education.

“Plato was born in Athens in 428/7 BC…”[2]. When we speak of the existence and development of formal education, he is given a particular consideration. “Education in ancient Greece aimed at producing a complete person, one who had developed intellectually, morally and aesthetically”[3]. Plato’s main ideas of education are found in his dialogues, The Republic, Laws and Statesman.

Nyerere is an African, a Tanzanian who is considered to be a political philosopher and teacher. He “was born at Butiama, in a village near Musoma on the shores of lake Victoria, in 1922”[4], he was the first president of the United Republic of Tanzania and his ideas about education are found in his famous paper called Education for self-reliance, which was issued on March 1967 after the Arusha Declaration. Historically up to independence in 1961, Tanzania was under the British Colonial rule and education then was not aiming at the development of Tanzanians but in the colonial interests of the homeland. Education provided in Tanzania after Independence was education for self-reliance.

Education for self-reliance in Tanzania was an effort at redefining what constituted knowledge for Tanzania society. A reaction against the Colonial construction of social reality, it was an attempt by the Tanzanian leaders to conceptualise its own educational agenda. Education for self-reliance was premised on principles of egalitarianism. Consequently, its early focus was to provide access to a basic education for members of the society[5]

The aim of this thesis is to show how these two philosophers considered the concept and importance of education though they differed in culture, environment and also in time and place in which they lived. For them education is something, which is very important in society, whereby an individual will be formed and becomes a useful member of society and enable him to promote his culture and to lead a good life.

This work is divided into three chapters. The first chapter is about Plato’s concept of education, the second chapter is about Nyerere’s concept of education and the third chapter is about comparative aspects. In this part I shall indicate the similarities and differences in these two philosophers. Finally, this will be followed by a conclusion and bibliography.


1.  PLATO’S CONCEPT OF EDUCATION

1.1  The Meaning of Education

I have already explained in the introduction the general meaning of education, which is the transfer of knowledge from one generation to another. However, Plato would say that:

education the initial acquisition of virtue by the child, when the feelings of pleasure and affection, pain and hatred, that well up in his soul are channelled in the right courses before he can understand the reason why… education, then is a matter of correctly disciplined feelings of pleasure and pain [6].

Apart from this definition, Plato sees education as “… to ensure that the habit and aspirations of the old generation are transmitted to the younger- and then presumably to the next one after that”[7]. Means of transmitting knowledge according to Plato are: father-and- son and teacher- and- pupil; but beyond these, there are others, such as mother- and- child, Officer- and –soldier, court, priest- and –layman, speaker-and- audience, Lawyer-and- Law”[8].

1.2  Plato’s Understanding of Education

If one studies Plato’s morality, politics, education etc. one cannot avoid reading his Allegory of the Cave, and the theory of a divided line. It is upon these theories Plato departed in making the explanation of education. There is a great similarity between the Allegory of the Cave and the theory of a divided line due to the fact that all have been divided into two worlds i.e. the world of shadow and the world of ideas. In these theories, Plato wanted to show how an individual could acquire knowledge from one stage to another. In these different stages of development of human mind, Plato assigned a kind of soul. In the allegory of the cave, Plato says that,

most mankind, this allegory would suggest, dwells in the darkness of the cave. They have oriented their thoughts around the blurred world of shadow. It is the function of education to lead men out of the cave into the world of light. Education is not what some people declare it to be, namely, putting knowledge into souls that lack it, like putting sight into a blind eye. Knowledge is like vision in that it requires an organ capable in receiving it. Just as the prisoner had to turn his whole body around in order that his eyes could see the light in stead of the darkness, so also it is necessary for the entire soul to turn away from the deceptive world of change and appetite that causes a blindness of the soul[9].

However, according to Plato, education is a matter of conversion. i.e. a complete turn around from the world of appearances to the world of the reality. ‘The conversion of the souls’, says Plato, ‘is not to put the power of sight in the soul’s eye, which already has it, but to insure that, instead of looking in the wrong direction, it is turned the way it ought to be’ [10].

On the other hand, it is showing that the power to learn is present in anyone’s soul and that the instrument with which each learns, is like an eye that can not be turned around from darkness to light without turning the whole body.

Following this statement one can realise that because every one possesses the power to learn in his soul, what is needed is to turn our soul in a proper way that is to prepare a good environment for learning. It is shown that the more you move up the more you acquire knowledge. Plato sees various stages of the human mind i.e. from ignorance to true knowledge. The lowest stage of knowledge is imagination: “Here the mind confronts images, or at least the amount of reality”[11]. In using the word imagination Plato wanted to show “simply the sense experience of appearances wherein these appearances are taken as true reality”[12]. The characteristic of this stage is the failure of one to know what is shadow or an image, this man is not aware that he is observing such a thing i.e. image. Plato assigned to this stage the appetitive soul. A further stage of development of human mind is belief. So to a certain extent there is a light compared with the lowest stage; there is a strong feeling of certainty, but not absolute certainty. Someone can observe things that are visible and tangible but Plato would say “visible objects depend upon their context for many of their characteristics”[13]. To this stage, Plato also assigned the appetitive soul. All these stages of development of human mind are found in the world of shadow; finishing these stages one can now move from one world to another, i.e. from visible world to the intelligible world. Thinking was the stage where the great lights are found; entering into this world you have already moved from the realm of opinion to the realm of thinking; reason is used here. The act of moving from the visible world to the intelligible world is progress; but it needs effort and mental discipline. The last stage of development of the human mind is the attainability of perfect knowledge. “Perfect intelligence represents the mind as completely released from sensible objects. At this level, the mind is dealing directly with the forms.”[14] Knowledge that was discussed by Plato was not knowledge of particulars but was knowledge of universals; knowledge of particulars was in the lowest stage while knowledge of universals was equated as abstract.

In short, the theory of the divided line contains four sections; which are intelligence for the highest, thinking for the second, belief for the third and the lower section is imagination. Moving from one stage to another need effort and mental discipline hence one cannot acquire knowledge without great effort.

In every place where Sophists appear in the dialogue, the process of education was given some examination, even when military life is discussed. Likewise some educative features were also mentioned. We can see how much the question of education was considered or how much education was given priority. The whole process of learning requires teachers and students; teachers are the ones who know the subject matter to be taught. In addition to that, Plato would say:

He is the man who persuades in the market place or in the privacy of a small gathering; he is a person with a skill such as weaving or flute playing; he is the head of the state who guides his subject; he is person who discloses arcane mysteries to the particular audience fitted to receive them[15].

The process of learning, was suggested to be in the form of discussion between students and teachers. Plato’s idea of education was primarily intended for those who were to be statesmen. What made him to emphasise the statesmen more was to avoid blind leaders; because these statesmen will be given a state, and if they are not educated will lead the country or the state into a terrible situation.

Plato’s interest in the epistemological ascent is thus no mere academic or narrowly critical interest; he is concerned with the conduct of life, tendency of the soul and with the good of the state. The man who does not realise the true good of man will not, and cannot, lead the truly good human life, and the statesman who does not realise the true good of the state, who does not view political life in the light of eternal principles, will bring ruin on his people[16].

Therefore, Plato was fully convinced that education would help one to know many things; he/she will be able to know what to do in his/her state in order to avoid disaster in the state. So much so, that those who have different tasks in the state were supposed to get education, not merely any education, but education for the real true and good, or, in other words, they should become philosophers. After the long years of studies it was suggested that those who wanted to rule the state were supposed to work or hold some office for fifteen years before starting service to the. State, in order to get experience and also to learn to stand firm when confronted with difficulties and problems. Whoever survived all these tests was qualified to be Philosopher king. Moreover,

These tests are supposed to determine prospective rulers from those who are to be soldiers and artisans. The whole range of the educational system would be in part physical, in part intellectual, and in part moral. If a man cannot withstand moral temptation, then he might sacrifice the interest of the society in order to satisfy his own interests [17].

1.3  The Role of Education

Education should make people fit for their different social roles; as he said, “A purpose of education is to create a balance, a harmonious state; where the workers are to be trained to obey their masters and offer important economic services to the state”[18].

Education also helps to prepare the ruler of the state, on this he said,

The ruler of the state should be the one who has the peculiar abilities to fulfil that function … the ruler, said Plato, should be the one who has been fully educated, one who has come to understand the difference between the visible world and the intelligible world, between the realm of opinion and the realm of knowledge, between appearance and reality. The Philosopher-king is one whose education in short, has led him up step by step through the ascending degrees of knowledge of the divided line until at the last he has a knowledge of the Good, that synoptic vision of the interrelation of all truths to each other[19].

    He thought also that the Philosopher king must have been undergoing many stages of education. The role of education also is to improve the ability of an individual, by dialogue one gets deeper understanding and becomes more creative. It helps to promote the culture of people and enable them to have a good life by preparing children creating good atmosphere, by using play, music, discussion and criticism. “Education must promote a new type of leadership; and this leadership, once found, isolated, and trained, must by rights become supreme”[20]. Education was for the betterment of state and individual.

1.4  Education in Greek Society

1.4.1  Main Features of Greek Education

Education in Greece was a matter of private individuals. Sophists were considered as educators. These were selling their wisdom, in their schools they admitted only pupils who were able to pay. Consequently poor families could not manage to pay. Sophists moved from one town to another. This situation didn’t please Plato since they were not the best channels of education, neither second best because they desired money and fame rather than knowledge. Therefore,

Plato’s attitude toward these itinerant teachers, who picked up as much information and technic as possible in town and moved on to the next to purvey it, who usually lacked any firm commitment to truth, and who were happy to sell what they had picked up in rather expensive packages of private or semi private instruction, is a mixed one[21].

Therefore, Plato proposed the state to be responsible for education rather than to leave it to the private individuals, as it had always been the case. So, Plato proposed to have a Minister of Education; this was considered as the most important minister, and his office also was considered as the greatest one. He advised that education of children should not become secondary or an accident. In addition to that Plato proposed that:

Education should be carefully planned as it is universal, with subject matter, admissible candidates, age levels, examinations and rewards being taken up as pressing considerations in state- supported and state- administered schooling[22].

The Platonic approach to education comprises the following aspects: sciences and arts, which were to be communicated by teachers to their pupils; moral virtue, necessary to teacher and students, and finally political institutions, which were connected with the learning process. But practically, Plato was interested in the method and purpose of education, its transmission through the institutions, which help in education. Teaching and training in accordance with their ages, selection of educators (teachers) and pupils, content of education, effectiveness of those who have already acquired that education. Tradition according to Plato was one of the fundamental factors required in any successful grasp of teaching[23]. Here Plato wanted to show the role of tradition in the whole process of learning since it is through tradition that we can get knowledge of the past. It is through tradition man connects with his past and with the past of society and his city. Moreover, Plato believed that in order to create a balanced and harmonious state, various social orders such as workers, soldiers and guardians should be educated separately in order to fit for their different social roles; e.g. workers were to be trained to obey their masters so that they can offer an important economic service to the state.

Following the mistreatment of women in Greece, education for women raised questions; but to overcome this problem Plato says, “natural gifts are to be found in both sexes … ”[24]. So, women and children were supposed to be sent to school for education and not just to stay home. Moreover, to support this issue Plato asked:

are dogs divided into hes and shes, or do they both share equally in hunting and in keeping watch and in the other duties of dogs? Or do we entrust to the males the entire and exclusive care of the flock, while we leave the females at home, under the idea that the bearing and suckling the puppies is labour enough for them? “No” he said, “they share alike; the only difference between them is that the males are stronger and the females weaker”[25].

So, women have got the same duties as men, and in order to fulfil their duties they must have the same nurture and education.

…then there is no way of life concerned with the management of the city that belongs to a woman because she is a woman or to a man because he is a man, but the various natures are distributed in the same way in both creatures.  Women share by nature in every way of life just as men do, but in all of them women are weaker than men[26].

The only difference noted between men and women is physical function, i.e. one begets, the other bears children. Apart from physical function, all can perform the same functions. Therefore, in order to perform all these duties, education was necessary for them so that society could get best values from both men and women. But this idea was revolutionary to Greek women, since in Greece they were staying home and took care of babies.

However, Plato recognised also some differences in intelligence and talents; so it was suggested to have different schools for those who have got special talents, i.e. he advocated an educational system, which would distinguish and identify rulers, soldiers and the populace.

1.4.2  Stages of Education.

Plato named three stages of education: reading and writing as the first stage; second stage: physical education; and the third stage: secondary or literary education.

Reading and writing

Education was not started for the children after birth, even before birth a mother was supposed to exercise properly, to ensure the health of the baby. After birth, exercise must be supplemented by various means that will keep the child from becoming frightened or emotional. This was followed by supervised play, instruction for both boys and girls; although they were supposed to learn the same disciplines and sports, it was suggested to be done separately.

In this stage children should be taught through music, play, physical work, geometrical exercises: this should be done when children are in the age of six. The major aim of this stage is to “promote culture and right living by exposing the child to the proper kind of environment and atmosphere through play, music, discussion, and criticism”[27].

Physical education

In this stage Plato was thinking more of military training rather than mere athletic training. This stage starts from 18th to 20th year. In this course, it was compulsory to attend; the young people of Athens spent two years in this course in order to be trained. Big emphasis was on physical education because it helped to build healthy bodies. And the other purpose of training was to give them stability in judgement. Nevertheless, the education for these Guardians was restricted on a blend of the soft and the rough, so that these guardians would have a degree of aggressiveness tempered with gentleness; to be like watchdogs fighting against wolves, they were supposed to get physical strength, courage and a philosophical temperament: they should have self-control, self-discipline and they must also show wisdom. By those characteristics they could be able to care for laws and customs. Education of Guardians emphasised mind and character; were including stories both true and fiction. Of this stage Plato concluded by saying,

The general purpose of this stage of education –to train both character and moral and aesthetic judgement …The influence of environment on growing mind is again emphasised: it is because of this that so rigid a censorship of the music and poetry to be used in education is required …[28].

Secondary or literary education

This is the study of the works of poets, which were learnt to be recited and were sung to the lyre, so it included knowledge of music. Greeks didn’t have a Bible; the poets were the source of theology and morals. An ordinary Greek was expected to acquire his morals and theological notions from these poets and use them to educate his young, so it was expected that those poets must be suitable for the intended purpose i.e. to teach morality. This was strictly considered because most of the existing poetries were unsuitable and because of this, Plato was afraid that unsuitable poetry could misrepresent God who is Perfect.


2.  NYERERE’S CONCEPT OF EDUCATION

2.1  Nyerere’s Understanding of Education

According to Nyerere education whether formal or informal has a purpose,

That purpose is to transmit from one generation to the next the accumulated wisdom and knowledge of the society and to prepare the young people for their future membership of the society and their active participation in its maintenance or development[29].

But according to him, education is not something which must be done in the classrooms rather, it is a kind of learning from others and from past experience including our past success or failures. As he said, “Education is learning from books, from radio, from films, from discussions about matters which affect our lives, and especially from doing things”[30].

Other ways of learning are from magazine and newspaper. However, Nyerere was fully convinced that a good way of learning is by doing. Concerning this matter he said “The best way to learn to sew is to sew…”[31]. Also Nyerere was convinced that education is not necessarily to be done in schools but children can learn from parents and brothers and sisters[32]. For him learning is a part of living and it can not be divorced from the community since a child learns from his family before he ever goes to school. “…they have already learnt many things starting from learning to walk, and including good manners, useful jobs around the house or farm, as well as many other things”[33]. This kind of education according to Nyerere is called Basic Education; here also he said, “When a child first comes to school at the age of six or seven it has already developed some character traits and it has absorbed some ideas through life in the family”[34]. Education according to Nyerere must be used for the whole community since knowledge which remains isolated from the people or knowledge used by few for the sake of exploiting others is betrayal; it is a vicious kind of theft by false pretences. Following this idea Nyerere gave an example:

Students eat the bread and butter of the peasants because they have promised a service in the future. If they are unable or unwilling to provide that service when the time comes, then the students have stolen from the peasants as surely as if they had carried off their sacks of wheat in the night[35].

2.1.1  Informal Education in Tanzania

Before the coming of colonists, Tanzania did not have formal educational system. There existed short periods of initiations. In some tribes, children were being sent in the bush far from home under the special guidance of people who had been selected for teaching them. From these special people, children were learning by doing. Moreover, in their homes they were taught the skills of society, and behaviour expected of its members. Apart from that, they were shown kinds of the grasses and learned which were suitable for some purpose e.g. medicine and feeding animals; and also for their use as vegetables. By listening to stories from their elders children could get to know their tribal history and their relation with other tribes, and even their spirits. By this kind of learning Nyerere said, “every adult was a teacher to greater or lesser degree”[36]. Therefore we can say that we had the same education for all, free for all, not in the formal sense of today, with a hierarchy of school certificate and degrees, only for the few lucky ones.

2.1.2  Colonial Education in Tanzania

On this matter Nyerere said,

The education provided by the Colonial government in the two countries which now form Tanzania had a different purpose. It was not designed to prepare young people for the service of their own country; instead it was motivated by a desire to inculcate the values of the colonial society and to train individuals for the service of the colonial state.[37]

Colonial education was based on the assumptions of a colonialist and capitalist society; it introduced the attitudes of human inequality since it encouraged the individualistic instincts of mankind. Also it led to the tendency of the possession of individual material wealth as a major criterion of social merit. It was also characterised by racial distinction. Generally, this education didn’t transmit the values and knowledge of Tanzanian society to the next generation. On the contrary, as Nyerere points out, “it was a deliberate attempt to change those values and to replace traditional knowledge by the knowledge of different a society”[38].

2.2  Education in  Tanzania

The 1962 education ordinances changed the entire education system so as to eliminate the division of schools, which existed in that time. Up to then, the Directors of Education controlled African schools in Tanzania, while Asian, and European schools were run by their respective Boards. The effort was made by the ordinances to set up a single integrated system of education for all children and all schools. Following this effort, all schools became national schools under a single chief education officer, and with local education authorities[39].

In 1967 President Julius Kambarage Nyerere produced a pamphlet entitled Education for self-reliance, which revolutionised the educational program in Tanzania. Education for self- reliance was a result of the Arusha Declaration of 1967 when Tanzania opted for a march towards socialism. This Declaration proposed that all schools should be under the government. Therefore, through the Arusha Declaration the Government assumed the control of schools through the Ministry of Education. The function of the Ministry of education under the Minister of Education as Nyerere said is “to organise its introduction, and supervise the action being taken on it”[40].

Education for self- reliance made big challenges on the Tanzanian State by making the educational system more relevant in facing and solving the problems of Tanzanian society. Education for self-reliance was “a reaction against the colonial contraction of social reality, it was an attempt by the Tanzanians leadership to conceptualise its own educational agenda”[41]. However, education for self- reliance was also proposed in order to change students’ negative attitudes toward agriculture and to erase the elitist tendency to believe that book education was all that mattered[42].

The term self-reliance means “an assertion of being inward looking, looking intentionally for ones basic survival, not to external forces”[43]. The basic principle of education for self-reliance was egalitarianism, while a primary aspect was to make agriculture an integral part of the curriculum since Tanzania depends heavily on agriculture in her economy. In other words after independence Tanzanian education was based on the following principles, which had been agreed in Arusha Declaration:

First, equality and respect for human dignity, second, sharing of the resources which are produced by people’s efforts, and finally, sharing by every one and exploitation by none[44].

Education for self-reliance aimed to solve the crisis that existed in Tanzania by focusing on the preparation of entrepreneurs, consumers and workers to become more active participants in the development of the national economy. It viewed work as an expression of individual freedom. Moreover, there are other aspects, which were being emphasised in this system of education: communication through a national language guided by friendship, truth, generosity, freedom and justice[45].

In the process of learning, the role of teachers together with what they teach was highly considered by Nyerere. As he said,

We have thought of the teachers as imparting knowledge-of arithmetic, reading, writing and so on. And of course they do, and it is vital. But it is not the only thing or the most important thing, which the child learns from the teachers. What the teacher presents to the class is important…[46].

It was emphasised that the subjects to be taught should be practical. They should help to solve the problems of Tanzanians. To support this idea Nyerere said,

…when a tutor is preparing his syllabus, his lecture or seminar, he should first ask himself, ‘What needed understanding, or ‘what new information, am I trying to convey to the students?’ he should then go on to ask, ‘What knowledge of, or from our own society is relevant to this matter?’ And finally, ‘what has mankind’s heritage of knowledge to teach us in this connection?’[47].

In forming students it was also highly emphasised by Nyerere that teachers should be enthusiastic, and encourage the children to help each other. Teachers also must have good behaviour so that student can learn from and imitate them. This behaviour should be inside and outside the classroom. Teacher should treat everyone with respect, and discuss their positions clearly and rationally. Also teachers are needed who exhibit equality and friendship[48].

2.2.1  Education After Independence

When the educational system was inherited from the British, at the time of independence, there were three areas that clearly needed immediate change. These areas are as follows:

(1) The racial separation of students in schools, (2) the European orientated curriculum, and (3) the small number of schools operating, affording an education to only a small minority of the population”[49].

    Therefore, within three years after Independence great strides were made in the expansion of the educational system; these changes were immediate integration of all schools and in changing the curriculum so that subjects could be taught from an African rather than a European point of view[50]. But despite these changes, it became evident that there was much that was wrong with the entire system. Only a tiny minority could be passed into secondary schools which means that the majority of children attending primary schools became school leavers at the end of their primary level. This made them feel a sense of failure, and these school leavers were totally unprepared to use their education, so it was practically wasted. This problem was repeated at secondary school level, where students were prepared for university examination and at the end of their course few of them were passed to enter university level.

Another problem arose at that time: the belief that the educational system could lead students into white-collar jobs, with high salaries rather than work for the needs of a socialist republic. Therefore, Nyerere proposed in his essay drastic changes in order to avoid those problems in the entire educational system. Here Nyerere said,

 

First, children must begin primary school at the later age, around 7 or 8 rather than 5 or 6 … Another point that the president raised is that formerly students have been accustomed to having others wait on them and have not learnt to do things for themselves. This is to be changed by a system of working while learning and in addition, learning through working. That is, schools are to establish farms to raise vegetables, cash crops and possibly raise cattle, both the use of the student and to establish a system whereby each school may become at least partially self- supporting economically … In urban area schools, other practical schemes will be worked out where farming is not feasible. In this way, the children will learn to respect work as well as education, and will discover that a school education is not the only way of acquiring knowledge. They will also begin to put what they have learned to practical application[51].

 

A question should be raised: did Nyerere want to change schools into factories or shambas? Here Nyerere said, “schools are the places for learning we do not want to change this”[52]. So, we can realise that for Nyerere living, learning and working can’t be separated; as Nyerere said, “to live is to learn; and to learn is to try to live better”[53].

2.2.2  Systems of Education

The educational system in Tanzania is divided into three stages: primary, secondary and university level.

Primary level

The aim of primary schools in Tanzania as Nyerere said is the “preparation of pupils for secondary school”[54]. Moreover, the purpose of primary school as Nyerere said is “to be geared to the needs and realities of rural, agrarian life in the hope that standard seven leavers would become psychologically and technically prepared to accept that life”[55]. During this preparation, children are being taken from their parents in the age of seven years old. During the day, for seven and half-hours children are being taught certain academic skills. Efforts were made to relate these skills with the life which children see around them. The most important thing to note is that schools are never a part of society, always a place where children are going for learning. Formerly, children were being admitted to primary school in the age of five or six. Following this situation, they were completing their studies still young and they were not old enough to enter society, also they were not prepared enough to use their education in the villages and finally, they felt a sense of failure, as we have already said above. Therefore Nyerere proposed,

First, children must begin primary school at a later age, around 7 or 8 rather than 5 or 6, so that when they complete their studies they will be old enough to enter society as educated young adults ready to work. The primary schools will change their curriculum and examination system, so that children finishing primary school will feel a real sense of accomplishment and be prepared for the vital work they must do in co-operation with others to build the nation[56].

At this stage, Swahili is the medium of instruction. Also Swahili and English are being taught as subjects in the upper standards together with other subjects such as social studies, history, geography and civics have been localised in order to meet local awareness and political needs, while agriculture, crafts, health education and home economics were introduced for proper rural integration and life. Moreover, pupils are being taught religion by their respective Religion instructors in the schools, but no one religion is binding on the pupil in their school life. Physical exercises also are considered in this stage, in the form of paramilitary training (mchakamchaka). Primary schools were day schools attended only by children who live nearby. During the school time once a child had been enrolled, attendance is compulsory. This course is for seven years, i.e. children work up from standard one to standard seven and each standard consists of one academic year; here boys and girls are educated together. Nyerere later strongly emphasised that, “primary schools must be a complete education in itself. It must not continue to be a simply a preparation for secondary school”[57]. In the end of this course, students are being given the Primary Leaving Certificate.

 

Secondary level

Students intending to go to secondary school were given or were supposed to take selective examination at about fourteen years of age. Those who passed have to start from form one to form four. This selection considers the intelligent and talented students in relation to the school they are going to study. In this stage, English becomes the medium of instruction; together with continued study in Swahili as a compulsory subject. At the end of form four a candidate must get a pass in swahili so that he/she can qualify for a form four certificate. Also Religion is to be learnt in this stage. At the end of this course candidates receive National School certificate for form four.

After form four those who passed were admitted for form five while others remained to take other courses. After form six, pupils receive a Higher School Certificate and then some go to university. Before going to university or other courses, they were supposed to attend one year of military training.

The aim of secondary school according to Nyerere is to prepare students for university and also to prepare students to do useful work upon completion of their studies[58]. Most of the secondary schools formally were boarding schools whereby students were being taken many miles away from their homes, and most of them were owned by the government. Following the increasing number of private schools, many problems arose instead of reducing them. Such problems were, the poor quality of schools, expensive school fees, the shortage of books and the promotion of rote learning because many teachers tend to teach for the examinations. Moreover, in order to make this system more relevant Nyerere proposed, “Secondary schools must not be simply a selection process for the university, teachers’ colleges and so on. They must prepare people for life and service in the village and rural area of this country”[59].

 

University level

Students admitted to university level are those who have passed their form six national examination. At the University of Dar es salaam Nyerere once said, “a university is an institution of higher learning; a place where people’s mind are trained for clear thinking, for independent thinking, for analysis, and for problem solving at the highest level”[60].

Besides the transmission of advanced knowledge, a university provides a centre for the attempt to advance the frontier of knowledge and to prepare intellectual people who will take part in day to day administrative or professional responsibilities. Lastly, it provides for higher-level manpower that will serve the needs of society[61]. However, Nyerere argued,

A university in a developing country must put the emphasis of its work on subjects of immediate concern to the nation in which it exists … In line with his socialistic philosophy Nyerere emphasises that Universities must teach students to avoid arrogance and consider themselves as servants in training. He points out further that African universities must remove the hitherto prevalent attitude that they must be understood by Western societies. Instead, he suggests, African Universities must attempt to be understood by African societies[62].

2.2.3  Adult Education

The meaning of adult education as Nyerere explained it is

a learning about any thing at all which can help us to understand environment we live in, and the manner in which we can change and use this environment in order to improve ourselves[63].

Adult education can cover many subjects for those who did not get an opportunity to be at school when they were young. This kind of education can be applied to every one without any exception. This was linked to the policies for rural development and also the bringing together of the people into Ujamaa villages. Adult education doesn’t mean the learning of history or grammar or foreign languages[64]. The main purpose of adult education, as stressed by Nyerere, is that,

we can learn more about growing a particular crop, about the Government, about house building, about whatever interests us about better farming methods, better child care, better feeding[65].

Centres for adult education were in primary schools and offered training in agricultural techniques, craftsmanship, health education, house crafts, simple economics, accounting and political education. Moreover, by using one hour daily, workers were being offered workers’ education in order to improve their standards in rendering a good service to society, and also to increase their intellectual and professional capacities.

2.3  The Role of Education

According to Nyerere the purpose of any form of education whether formal or informal is

to transmit accumulated wisdom and knowledge and to prepare young people for their role in the maintenance and development of the particular society…education will prepare students for their responsibilities to the community and diplomas will not be tickets to affluence but the badge of just another kind of worker. Education will be judged on the true value of what it can do to help people, rather than the false value of making an educated person feel in some way superior to another without formal education[66].

Education in Tanzania should stress and encourage co-operation and not individual advancement, i.e. it aims at building an egalitarian society by eliminating classes or inequality existing in Tanzania. It should also improve on the quality of services and strengthen responsibility. Education in Tanzania tries, according to Mwalimu Nyerere, to instil a sense of solidarity into the young people:

This is what our education system has to encourage. It has to foster the social goals of living together, and working together, for the common good. It has to prepare our young people to play a dynamic and constructive part in the development of a society in which all members share fairly in the good or bad fortune of the group and in which progress is measured in terms of human well-being, not prestige buildings, cars, or other such things, whether privately or public owned. Our education must therefore inculcate a sense of commitment to the total community and help the pupils to accept the value appropriate to our kind of future, not those appropriate to our colonial past[67].

Education should free man from illusions and help people to have a national identity. In support of this idea Nyerere said:

The main burden that the state must carry is to free every citizen from the camp of the illusions resulting from colonial domination. It is the state’s duty to take initiative, because most of the people living in the camp are too weak to free themselves. The mechanism used to accomplish this mission is the national culture of Ujamaa and an educational policy of self- reliance [68].

Education must also enable people to think by themselves, to judge and to decide their own issues, and finally to be able to implement their own decision in their daily lives. Nyerere strongly believed that it is through the right educational system that citizens can be prepared and encouraged to think by themselves, having an enquiring mind together with the ability to learn from others while rejecting or adapting information of one’s needs, basic confidence in his own position as a free and equal member of society, who values others and is valued by them in turn for what he does and not for what he possesses[69].

To be educated, for Nyerere means to have a critical mind, and it doesn’t mean to rule out the contributions made by others. To think critically is to consider how others’ contributions could have a bearing on the situation at hand[70].

 2. 4  Importance of Education

The first job of adult education will therefore be to make us reject bad houses, bad jembe, and preventable diseases; it will make us recognise that we ourselves have the ability to obtain better houses, better tools and better health[71].

So, we can discover that it is through education that we can improve our lives; especially by knowing things which can be harmful for our health, e.g. dirty water; it can help us to improve our farms, or our factories, and our offices. It helps us to know better food, modern methods of hygiene, making furniture by using our local material[72]. Nyerere wished adult education to be for every one so as to understand our traditional policies of socialism and self-reliance[73]. Nyerere saw also reason to warn:

there is no doubt, of course, that the knowledge which has been acquired at schools and higher educational Institutions can be used almost exclusively for personal gain, with benefit to the society being a mere by product[74].

He also warned of self-complacency

Everything we do stresses book learning…This does not mean that any person can do any job simply because they are old and wise, nor that educational qualifications are not necessary. This is a mistake our people sometimes fall into as a reaction against the arrogance of the book- learned. A man is not necessarily wise because is old; a man cannot necessarily run a factory because he has been working in it as a labourer or storekeeper for 20 years[75].

It increases man’s power over himself and his environment. Education helps to form people who will give service to the community, it encourages and it challenges people in developing their powers of constructive thinking. Moreover, it is through education whereby an individual can change the condition where he/she lives, and also it helps us to form good leadership, as Nyerere said, “our leadership and progress towards self-government depends on higher education…we must have educated leadership”[76].

 


3.  EXISTING SIMILARITIES AND DISMILARITIES

Plato and Nyerere seem to develop some similar ideas on the understanding of education. However, there are necessarily also differences between them and in their approach to education. Obviously, what makes them differ is time and space, although both started from their historical and political experiences. Plato is disappointed with matters in Athens, while Nyerere attempts to overcome Colonialism. More than that, Nyerere seems to be influenced by Socialists countries of Eastern Europe, Asia and by Cuba.

3.1  On Understanding Education 

Both Plato and Nyerere agree that education need not be done in the classroom only. For them education is a transfer of knowledge from one person or from one generation to another. Knowledge according to Plato is transmitted through human relationships[77]. Similarly, Nyerere saw the ways of educating people in which person can learn from radio, books, magazine, newspapers; or children learn from parents, brothers and sisters[78]. Therefore, through those ways of educating, it is evident that education for both is not only restricted to the classrooms, but rather, persons will learn from others even outside the classrooms.

3.2  The Role of the Teacher

In the case of formal education both Plato and Nyerere emphasised the role of teachers. Plato thought that the role or the function of teachers is to communicate a subject matter to the pupils. Teachers are those who know the subject matter. So did Nyerere. Moreover, Nyerere emphasised that teachers should have enthusiasm, they should have a spirit of helping students, and good behaviour, treat students with equality and friendship[79]. Nyerere believed that students learn many things from their teachers, not only what teachers teach, but also social behaviour through the example shown by their teachers.

 3.3  Selection of Students

Plato and Nyerere also discussed the selection of students together with examinations of the student. These selections were in accordance with the age and stage to which these students were admitted. In Greece, pupils were being accepted in the first level at the age of six. Unlike Plato, Nyerere had a different age of accepting students into schools. While Plato emphasised that education must start early, Nyerere differed with him. According to Nyerere, students must be accepted to start school in later age i.e. seven or eight years so that they can complete their studies old enough to enter society. Another thing whereby Plato and Nyerere differed, was the separation of boys and girls during their course. In Greece, boys and girls were being separated. As Plato says, “ when the boys and girls have reached the age of six, the sexes should be separated; boys should spend their days with boys and girls with girls.”[80]. Boys and girls were being taught the same things separately, but the spirit in which they were taught, differed because boys were destined to be soldiers, while girls would become mothers of families, they would only be called upon in an emergency to defend the state. Unlike Plato, Nyerere suggested that boys and girls must learn together. 

3.4  On the Question of Special Schools

Due to the differences of intelligence and talents, Plato suggested that different schools should be established in order to meet the needs of these people; rulers, soldiers and populace should be educated separately. But though Nyerere had this idea, also it was in a different manner. To him special schools were important but these were introduced after the primary level. Those who would pass well in their studies would get a chance in special Tanzanian schools.

3.5  Practical Work

In the learning process, both Plato and Nyerere wished practical work to be included. For example Plato insisted that those who want to be good builders or good husbandman should learn practically their work. Plato emphasised this point in this way:

…I insist that a man who intends to be good at a particular occupation must practice it from childhood: both at work and at play he must be surrounded by the special 'tools of the trade’. For instance a man who intends to be a good farmer must play at farming, and the man who is to be a builder must spend his play time building toy houses…[81].

On Nyerere’s side, students should learn through working, i.e. they should have to put what they have learnt to practical application. In supporting this idea Nyerere had suggested that in rural areas every school should have a shamba while in urban areas other practical schemes should apply. “…the best way to learn cooking is to cook…”[82]. Moreover, Plato and Nyerere considered the role of tradition in learning. Both agreed that it is through tradition that one learns or knows about the history of his/her society.

3.6  Against Gender Discrimination

Plato fought against the discrimination of women. At that time women in Greece were not considered the same as men so they were not given education since they were staying home caring for children. For him, women had to be given the same education as men. He believed that differences between sexes are not relevant in constructing a society. He thought that females and males have got the same right of receiving education from the state since the interest of the state is paramount and the kind of education which will produce good men will also produce good women.[83] Nyerere was not far from this. He was totally against gender and religious discrimination and proposed that education should be provided to all without any discrimination i.e. without considering race, sex or religion. For him, Europeans, Asians and Africans, Christians and Muslims, men and women were supposed to receive the same education. He would say: “a child of Tanzania can now secure admittance to any government school in this country without regard to his race or religion and without fear that he will be subjected to religious indoctrination as the price of learning”[84].

3.7  The Minister of Education

Previously, education in Greece and Tanzania were the matter of private individuals. Plato strove with great effort to put education in the hands of the state. He proposed that the state should be responsible for education. Also he proposed this educational matters to be under a Minister of Education. Like in Greece, after the Arusha Declaration in Tanzania, Nyerere proposed that all schools had to be under the Ministry of Education and this Ministry was put under the Minister of Education.

3.8  On the Question of Morality

Moral aspects were also being insisted upon. Ancient Greece didn’t have the Bible, poems were being used as a source of theology and morals; children were taught by using these poems so that they would grow up with good examples. In Tanzanian schools the respective religious representatives were teaching students religion, though there was no single binding religion in school.

3.9  The Role of Education

One of the most important roles of education according to Plato and Nyerere was the preparation of people so as to fit into their social roles and enabling them to give service to the state and offer an important economic contribution. Generally, according to Plato, education was for the betterment of state and individual. Nyerere insisted that education will form people and will help in the maintenance and development of a particular society. Nyerere knew that society is made up by people, and once people are educated, the whole of society will benefit. Both thinkers emphasised that education should meet the needs of the society and not merely just to learn without aim. In this matter Nyerere said, “Our young men and women must have an oriented education”[85]. Education must not only be given to Africans, but must meet the present needs of Africans. Learning according to Nyerere is not a merely learning of something, or an accumulation of knowledge, which will not profit society, rather a learner, must make sure that education is applicable and useful to the society. Subjects to be learned in Tanzania must help Tanzanians to solve their own problems.

3.10  Physical Education

Plato introduced physical education as a separate stage of education. But Nyerere introduced it in a different manner. According to Nyerere, in primary and secondary level students before entering the classrooms were supposed to get some exercises, which would help them to build up healthy bodies. This was called para- military training (mchakamchaka). And those who had completed secondary level or Teacher’s training college were all supposed to attend a one-year of Military service.

3.11  Absolute Knowledge

Plato divided three stages, which man passes in order to reach the highest stage of knowledge i.e. the knowledge of the Good. Knowledge of the Good according to Plato, was the absolute knowledge upon which a person would attain a complete knowledge. Therefore, we can discover that according to Plato learning ends somewhere else i.e. after reaching the knowledge of the Good. Unlike Plato, Nyerere shows that learning is something, which doesn’t have an end. Everyone is a learner from day to day and no anyone can boost on himself/herself that he/she has reached a complete and absolute knowledge. According to him, a person can learn from others, or from his/her experience including the past successes or failures[86].

 Moreover, Plato’s idea of education was primarily intended for the statesmen in order to avoid blind leaders. Plato understood that once statesmen are being educated, the state would not be in a terrible situation. Thus is why he proposed that a ruler must be a Philosopher-King. Philosopher king is the one who has passed all the stages of education, i.e. one who has reached the knowledge of the Good. Unlike Plato, Nyerere’s idea of education was not primarily insisted in a particular group of people but rather, education was being emphasised to the all citizens. Nyerere understood that once citizens are being educated, poverty, ignorance and diseases would disappear. However, on the question of leaders, Nyerere consider it in a different manner. According to him, a leader is the one who has been selected among the people to lead the country. Nyerere asked,

what is the meaning of leadership? When you are being selected to lead your fellowmen, it doesn’t mean that you know everything better than they do. It doesn’t even mean that you are more intelligent than they are, especially the elders[87].

Therefore according to Nyerere, a leader doesn’t know everything since he is still depending on others in order to learn.

CONCLUSION

 

In this work I have attempted to talk about two thinkers and presented their ideas on the question of education. In treating them, starting with Plato then Nyerere, I have tried to present the understanding of education, the role of education, education in Greek society, main features of Greek education, and the stages of education. However, on Nyerere’s concept of education, I have presented the following ideas: Nyerere’s understanding of education, informal education, colonial education, education in Tanzania, education after independence, systems of education, adult education, the role of education, and the importance of education. In the last chapter I have tried to make a comparative study between the two. I have indicated some similarities and differences.

In short, the question of education brought by Plato aimed at tackling three aspects, that is, to form people who are completed mentally, physically, and morally. It is by intellectual point of view Plato thought that statesmen could be achieved. That is why his educational idea was primarily intended for the statesmen. Physical education was also necessary since through this education he could get guardians who could devote themselves to the conduct of the war. The last aspect of the Greek education was to prepare people who are morally good. Plato thought that if people were morally good, the state also would become good. And if the state would become bad even individual citizens would not be able to lead the good life. These aspects were emphasised by Plato in order to build an Ideal state in which all members would have a good life1.

Greek life was essentially a communal life. Life apart from the society was not a good life since they believed that it is only through society that good life becomes possible to man. Greeks viewed States as a natural institution. Their function was to serve the needs of people. It is by this understanding Plato departed and suggested that education should be a matter of a state rather than of private individual. Furthermore, through the understanding of man Plato succeeded to remove the gap between women and men in receiving their rights. What makes man to be called a man according to Plato is rationality. So, if people share rationality, there was no any reason of not considering women as men.

Education for self reliance in Tanzania was planned in order to find a system that would fit the ujamaa policy of the country and overcome the education structure adopted in the country after independence. Basically, this system was aiming in helping Tanzanians to think by themselves, and to make them self-supportive rather than to depend on others.

I short education for self-reliance stressed the following aspects: Human dignity, removal of all forms of alienation, work to be viewed as an expression of individual freedom, and overcoming of self-negation (to build self-identity)2.

Unfortunately, education in Tanzania is still elitist and bourgeois in its philosophy. Most of teachers, students and even parents have put into their mind that education is simply book learning. While practical work is ignored, success in academic education becomes the highest goal, which a young person should strive for. Manual work is despised and it has been viewed as an activity fit only for illiterates and for school failures. Nyerere himself agreed that education for self-reliance did not reach its original plan. He said,

…I’m becoming increasingly convinced that we in Tanzania either have not yet found the right educational policy or have not yet succeeded in implementing it… or some combination of these two alternatives3.

To sum up I sincerely recognise the many handicaps present in my work. In this case I welcome anybody for comments, criticism, clarifications and also for additional points. I am very convinced that what I have exposed here about Plato’s and Nyerere’s understanding of the notion of knowledge is not as exhaustive as it should be and that is why I leave my work open for further comments.

 

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bennars, G.A, et al., Theories of Practice of Education, Nairobi: East Africa Educational Publishers, 1994.

Campbell, H & Stein, H., Tanzania and the IMF: The dynamics of  Liberalization, USA: Westview Press, 1992.

Cooper, M.J & Hutchinson S.D., Plato: Complete works, Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 1997.

Copleston, F., History of Philosophy, vol.1. New York: Dell Publishers, 1962.

Curtis, S. J.& Boult, M. E. A., A short history of educational ideas, Great   Britain: University Tutorial Press Ltd., 1965.

Jowett, B., Five Great Dialogues: Plato, New York: Walter J. Black, Inc., 1942.

Ministry Of Information And Tourism., Tanzania Today, Nairobi: University Press of Africa, 1968.

Morrison, D. R., Education and Politics in Africa: The Tanzania case, Nairobi: Heinemann Educational books (East Africa), 1976.

Nyerere, K. J., Freedom and Development /Uhuru na Maendeleo, Dar es Salaam: Oxford University Press, 1973.

                , Freedom and Socialism  /Uhuru na Ujamaa, Dar es Salaam: Oxford University Press, 1968.

                , Ujamaa: The essay on socialism, Dar es Salaam: Oxford University          Press, 1968.

Odhiambo, F.O., Handbook on some Social Political Philosophers, Nairobi: Consolata Institute of philosophy, 1994.

Okoko, A.B., Socialism and self- Reliance in Tanzania, London: University Port Harcourt Press, 1987.

Osoro, R., The African Identity and in crisis, Hudsonville Michigan: Bayana Publishers, 1993.

Plato., The Republic , Great Britain: The white friars Press Ltd., 1955.

Plonchmann, G., Plato, New York: Dell Publishing Co Inc., 1973.

Smith, T.V., Philosophers speak for themselves: From Thales to Plato, USA: The University of Chicago Press, 1934.

STUMPF, S.E., and Socrates to Sartre: History of Philosophy, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1966.

The Encyclopedia Americana Vol. 9, USA: Grolier Incorporated, 1992.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



[1] The Encyclopaedia Americana, 642.

[2] S.E. Stumpf, Socrates to Sartre, 49.

[3] G.A. Bennaars, Theories of practice of Education, 7.

[4] F.O. Odhiambo, Handbook on some Social- Political Philosophers, 75.

[5] H. Campbell & H. Stein, Tanzania and IMF, 150-150.

[6] M.J. Cooper, Plato: Complete works, 1344.

[7] G.K. Plonchmann, Plato, 74-75.

[8] G.K. Plonchmann, Plato, 74-75.

[9] S.E. Stumpf, Socrates to Sartre, 54-55.

[10] S.E. Stumpf, Socrates to Sartre, 55.

[11] S.E. Stumpf, Socrates to Sartre, 57.

[12] S.E. Stumpf, Socrates to Sartre, 57.

[13] S.E. Stumpf, Socrates to Sartre, 57.

[14] S.E. Stumpf, Socrates to Sartre, 60.

[15] G.K. Plonchmann, Plato, 72.

[16] F. Copleston, History of Philosophy, 162.

[17] F.O. Odhiambo, Handbook on some Social Political Philosophers, 7.

[18] G.A. Bennars, Theories of practice of education, 8.

[19] S.E. Stumpf, Socrates to Sartre, 75-76.

[20] T.V. Smith, Philosophers speak for themselves, 321.

[21] G.K. Plonchmann, Plato, 79.

[22] G.K. Plonchmann. Plato, 79

[23] Cf. G.K. Plonchmann. Plato, 75.

[24] F. Copleston, History of Philosophy, 229.

[25] B. Jowett, Five Great Dialogues: Plato, 335.

[26] M.J. Cooper, Plato: Complete works, 1083.

[27] G.A, Bennaars, Theories of practice of Education, 8.

[28] Plato, The Republic, 141.

[29] J.K. Nyerere, Ujamaa: The Essay on Socialism, 45.

[30] J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Development, 138.

[31] J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Development, 138.

[32] Cf. J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Development, 138.

[33] J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Development, 138.

[34] J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Socialism, 226.

[35] J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Development, 195.

[36] J.K. Nyerere, Ujamaa: The essay on Socialism, 45.

[37] J.K. Nyerere, Ujamaa: The essay on Socialism, 46.

[38] J.K. Nyerere, Ujamaa: The essay on Socialism, 47.

[39] Cf. Minisrty Of Information, Tanzania Today, 101.

[40] J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Development, 5.

[41] H. Campbell & H. Stein, Tanzania and IMF, 151.

[42] Cf. G.A Bennnars, Theory of practice of education, 300.

[43] H. Campbell & H. Stein, Tanzania and IMF, 151.

[44] G.A Bennars, Theory of practice education, 24.

[45] Cf. Osoro, The Africa Identity and in crisis 157.

[46] J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Socialism, 126-127.

[47] J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Development, 200.

[48] Cf. J.K. Nyerere, Freedom Socialism, 227.

[49] Ministry Of Information, Tanzania Today, 98.

[50] Cf. Ministry Of Information, Tanzania Today, 98.

[51] Ministry Of Information, Tanzania Today, 98-99.

[52] J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Development, 299.

[53] J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Development, 141.

[54] J.K. Nyerere, Ujamaa: Essay on Socialism, 54.

[55] D.R. Morrison, Education and politics in Africa, 259.

[56] Ministry Of Information, Tanzania Today, 98-99.

[57] J.K. Nyerere, Ujamaa: The Essay on Socialism, 61.

[58] Cf. Ministry Of Information, Tanzania Today, 98.

[59] J.K. Nyerere, Ujamaa: The Essay on Socialism, 61-62.

[60] J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Development, 192-193.

[61] Cf. J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Development, 193.

[62] G.A. Bennars, Theory of practice education, 24-25.

[63] J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Development, 138.

[64] Cf. J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Development, 139.

[65] J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Development, 139.

[66] Ministry Of Information, Tanzania Today, 98-99.

[67] J.K. Nyerere, Ujamaa, Essay on Socialism, 52.

[68] R. Osoro, The Africa Identity and in crisis, 146-147.

[69] Cf. J.K. Nyerere, Ujamaa: Essay on Socialism, 53.

[70] Cf. R. Osoro, The Africa Identity and in crisis, 147.

[71] J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Development, 137.

[72] Cf. J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Development, 137-138.

[73] Cf. J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Development, 138.

[74] J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Development, 24.

[75] J.K. Nyerere, Ujamaa: The Essay on Socialism, 57.

[76] J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Unity, 42-43.

[77] Cf. G.K. Plonchmann, Plato, 75.

[78] Cf. J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Development, 138.

[79] Cf. J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Development, 227.

[80] M.J Cooper, Plato: Complete works, 1463.

[81] M.J Cooper, Plato: Complete works, 1337.

[82] J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Development, 138.

[83] Cf. S.J. Curtis, A short history of educational ideas, 15.

[84] J.K. Nyerere, Ujamaa: Essay on socialism, 48.

[85] J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Development, 130.

[86] Cf. J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Development, 138.

[87] J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and socialism, 140.

 

1 Cf. F. Copleston, History of Philosophy, 223.

2 Cf. A.B. Okoko, Socialism and self- reliance in Tanzania, 62.

3 A.B. Okoko, Socialism and Self- reliance in Tanzania, 63.